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Polynesian DNA found in old Native American bones

Image of the Botocudo via Wikimedia Commons from the New York Public Library.

Image of the Botocudo via Wikimedia Commons from the New York Public Library.

Polynesian DNA has unexpectedly been discovered in the bones of now-extinct Native Americans who once lived in the interior of Brazil. These surprising findings are raising a variety of suggested answers to how this occurred, including the travels of ancient seafarers or the more recent slave trade.

Molecular geneticist Sergio Pena at the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil and his colleagues analyzed DNA from the Botocudo, who dwelt in what is now southeastern Brazil. They lived a nomadic, hunter-gatherer lifestyle, wore ornaments in their lips and ears Portuguese colonizers dubbed “botoques,” and were virtually entirely wiped out by the end of the 19th century during a war Portugal declared on all Native American tribes that did not accept European laws.

The researchers extracted DNA and partially sequenced the mitochondrial DNA from teeth obtained from 14 Botocudo skulls housed at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. Bewilderingly, in two of the skulls, they discovered mitochondrial lineages typically considered Polynesian.

“Everything was both surprising and exciting from the very start,” Pena says. “The first thought that came to my mind was that we had the rule out the possibility of some contamination, although it would be difficult exactly of that kind, since there were no Polynesian individuals in the chain of custody.” Another lab ultimately independently confirmed these findings.

The most exciting potential explanation of the DNA findings is that ancestors of the Botocudo once interbred with those of Polynesians before the peopling of the Americas 15,000 to 20,000 years ago, Pena says. Prior studies of skull shapes hinted that two distinct groups entered the Americas—one more Asian type seen now in the vast majority of extant Native Americans, and an earlier type seen in skeletons in Brazil and elsewhere that resembled some African groups, Australians, Melanesians, and Polynesians such as Easter Islanders.

“Unfortunately, there are several lines of evidence that render this hypothesis very tenuous,” Pena says. Mainly, the sequences that seem Polynesian in the Botocudo DNA appear too recent—they lack mutations one would expect would have accumulated over time if the sequences had been introduced before the peopling of the Americas. Such mutations were not seen in the portions of DNA the researchers studied, although they do not rule out the possibility such mutations exist in DNA they have not analyzed yet.

Another imaginable pre-Columbian scenario involves more recent direct contact between Polynesians and South Americans before Europeans arrived. For instance, Polynesian chicken bones have been found in Chile, and pre-Columbian signs of sweet potato and bottle gourd, both typical of South America, have been found on Easter Island. Still, despite those findings, Pena and his colleagues find the idea of such Polynesian descendants crossing the Andes to end up in Brazil too unlikely to seriously entertain.

“We would caution the lay public not to use our data to jump to the conclusion that trans-Pacific migrations occurred from Polynesia to the Americas,” Pena says.

Two more potential explanations are rooted after the arrival of Europeans. One involves the “blackbirding trade” that kidnapped or tricked people into work as laborers in the 1860s brought about 2,000 Polynesians to Peru. However, as far as the researchers can tell, there is no evidence any of these Peruvian slaves were transported to Brazil.

In addition, between 1817 and 1843, the African slave trade brought about 120,000 slaves from the Madagascar region to Brazil to work close to Botocudo areas. In these regions, the Native Americans were drafted to work side-by-side with African slaves in plantations and may have interbred. Female slaves from Madagascar may also have been kidnapped by Botocudos or ran away and found refuge among them. In fact, the kidnapping of a female by Botocudos is a central theme of an 1870 Brazilian opera, “Il Guarany.”

“We do not believe that these scenarios encompass all the possibilities and we are keeping our mind open that a fifth or sixth scenario may still appear,” Pena says.

Categories: Anthropology
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88 Responses to Polynesian DNA found in old Native American bones

  1. Kaui Trainer says:

    Polynesians have been crossing the Pacific for thousands of years and continue to do it today. Our ancestors have over a thousand years of oral history confirming these trans Pacific voyages! Fortunately, it is easy to use the internet to read all about it!

    • Kaleiwahine says:

      You beat me to it, Sister. I came here via Te Karere Ipurangi (the Maori news). All things are possible with God.

    • Randall says:

      I’ve been tracing my family genealogy trying to find as much info as possible. I could only get to 1865 being that my ancestors were slaves. I took a DNA test and found my MtDNA to be Native American but not the usual. It was specifically Polynesian. And looking at my family and especially the older ones I can see it. But how in the hell the Polynesians becom enslaved in god damned Kentucky? The bulk of my matches are in Hawaii and other islands.

      • There is a town in Washington State named Kalama. It was named after a river that was named after a Hawaiian seaman that sailed with Captain James Cook while he explored the Northwest Coast of the US. Just because there is no written information about an era in history doesn’t mean that era didn’t exist. When reading the historical accounts of other than western history it becomes obvious that ancient people traveled far wider than the western history would have us believe. Before the Chinese stopped exploring the world and closed themselves off from the rest of the world. They had the biggest ocean going fleet ever assembled in history. They traveled to the new world and easily could have picked up and distributed people from anywhere in the Pacific to anywhere else. When Capt. Cook first came to Hawaii the Hawaiians believed that the sails on the ship which resembled thier ceremonial arrangement that also looked like a sail indicated the return of a god. According to their religious belief someone or something was supposed to return to Hawaii and Cook was interpreted as it. It is possible that the Chinese fleet which of course had sails and may have come to Hawaii any time between the second century BC until the 15th century could have been the genesis of the Ancient Hawaiian belief. Anything is possible if we think out of the box.

        • Panete says:

          Cook arrived to Hawaii using Spanish charts that Alexander Dalrymple got in Manila when English took the city… so, probably, that English vessel was not something strange or “god-related” for Hawaiians.

      • Ann says:

        Wow, Randall! That’s a head scratcher for sure! Kentucky of all places.

      • Kalani says:

        Did you test with 23andme? If so, wondering if you’re referring to B4a1a1? But yet you say you have matches in Hawaii, which definitely would indicate Polynesian.

    • Rick says:

      My father & all his brothers have medium dark skin & oriental like eyes. The family story was unproven & always said to be Cherokee in origin. My recent DNA test @ Ancestry.com showed Polynesian ancestry, but not native America. This article makes both a possibility. Nice article. Thanks.

  2. ben .daubitu says:

    am Fijian and Melanesian ,
    ive always new my fellow pacificans were from south Americans
    …the body build,the way they do their traditional dance are the same
    ,and the chantings,vocals sounds the same..
    .i would also think that they were here(lapita people) in fiji before the first fijian came to this islands about 3000 years ago
    …they (lapita) were here already…

    • dn2364 says:

      they were Maori before they became known South American…there was no such name as south america in that time…the Maori name for this part of the world we knew as the land of URU…

      • ponoN. says:

        THere is overwhelming evidence that Polynesians come from the americas. Scientists are stuck on a couple of things that prohibit them from realizing this. Even ancient Hawaiians pointed East when asked where they came from…that would be South America. We have a cotton plant with 26 chromosomes found only here and in South America. The kumara or uala as we say in hawaii is found in south america and here and is called kumara in New Zealand. There are giant heads that face east in Peru just like the ones on Easter Island. Many names of places are the same as in the islands and many stories and legends tell of them coming from the east sailing west…that would have put them in america. This is not news to me…….we are the same people.

        • Kalani says:

          I don’t know about the overwhelming scientific evidence since y-DNA, mtDNA, archeology & linguist evidence does not point to the Americas, but archeological evidence, I remember minor linguistic influence & now this does confirm that there was interaction among the 2 groups. But the DNA evidence coming from the west confirms settlement, but with the Americas, definitely interaction & exchange (obviously) of technology as proven with the kumara, the tomolo (?) canoe like boats with the chumas and some DNA evidence certainly reiterates that.

          But people tend to misconstrue a lot. With the “which came first, the chicken or the egg.” I’ve seen Asians do this, as their Ego like to dictate asserting that we’re descendants of Asians. These terms were not used back then either, and they certainly don’t comprehend genetics nor archeology b/c both aren’t really saying that.

          Also, many of our oral traditions talk about coming from the east, esp. since the route from the south is done by swinging around like a gigantic u-turn. The PVS has maps, at least I thought, of their routes from the south and to the south, depending on the time of the year since the currents do change.

          • Kalani says:

            I should’ve stressed this from the article, which proves my point:

            “But to call that haplogroup Polynesian is a bit of a misnomer,” says Lisa Matisoo-Smith, a molecular anthropologist at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand. The haplogroup is also found — albeit at a lower frequency — in populations living as far west as Madagascar.

          • Rick Frazier says:

            If genetics migrate one direction, they most likely migrated in other directions where they encountered more frequent land masses, ie: Polynesians most likely went Southwest & Northwest. Pyramids found on every major continent would seem to indicate Egyptians could have wandered the entire earth, but did the Egyptians built the Pyramids?

        • Kawe says:

          I’m guessing you are LDS?

          • Kalani says:

            True about coming from the east, but you are aware that when they come from Tahiti or any of the islands south, they’ve proven by traditional navigation that coming back to Hawai’i they don’t come from the south. I’m going to assume that most people didn’t realize that they DO come from the east rather directly from the south.

      • allthat says:

        Bullshit they were called Maori!!!! The name Maori was given to native new zealanders by their leaders when the Europeans settled nz which means original/true people of the land coz Maori in some Polynesian islands is proncounced as mao’i meaning true. The word Maori has no connection to south america in this context of referring to a race!

        • Hanuoka says:

          Chieftain speaking…..Malayo Polynesians trekked from the heights of Tibet,China wintry region, some 8000 years ago and arrived at the South East of Asia and the Pacific rim.
          Others were thought to have crossed the Bering straits into Alaska,Canada… “Ice Age”,hence southwards to the deserts in Nevada,Missouri etc.And furthered into the rainforest of the Latin.
          11th century,Mongolian Gengzhiz Khan’s conquest across Asia from the east,annexed the largest empire the world ever,right up to eastern Europe.

          • Ann says:

            I read about some linguistic evidence that states that the Navajo language and the Burmese language have common features.

        • Iosefa Tai says:

          Te Maoriori were an ancient east african tribe. Approximately 2500 years ago their ancestress Hotu Matua, who was at other times known as Te Kupenga o te Ao; commanded a fleet of ocean going canoes that sailed west across the indian ocean to rediscover new zealand. At easter island she met and married Kiwa of the Urukehu people of Peru. One of their many descendents was Maui tikitiki a Taranga. Maori is the abbreviated term coined by members of the Polynesian society; Herries Beattie & co used to describe the native inhabitants of new zealand…

    • Iosefa Tai says:

      bay, I’m a native new Zealander, but with all due respect ; I totally reject the ascertion that Polynesians are some how related to the lapita people. We, PI’s’ as a general rule, do not fire clay. I know one of the few occasions was when great ocean voyages were undertaken; the entire crew would impress a thumb print on a tablet of clay which was then gently kneed into a ball and baked,. The life force or Mauri of the crew then travelled with the Tohunga elevated on the platform between the two great hulls in the centre of the Waka.

  3. please also refer to histories of the mormon migrations. these included landings and populating the polynesians, hawaii, countries in south america and mexico…eventually, some areas of north america, resulting in the various tribles of native american indians.

    • Joe says:

      I don’t quite understand what you are referring to here. The Mormons migration included moving west from Indiana to settle the western United States territories. It did not include populating the Pacific Islands and certainly did not result in various tribes of Native Americans. Now if what you are referring to is the Book of Mormon claim that in 600 B.C. a group of Israelites settled the Americas and eventually took to the seas and settled the Pacific Islands then then this is the first time I have ever heard any one refer to that alleged group as “Mormons”. Based on the Book of Mormon hypothesis, the Pacific Islanders DNA should point directly to Israilite blood, which has not been established.

      • Kaleiwahine says:

        Actually, the church does not propose that the people who came to the Americas in the Book of Mormon were the only people here and that there was no intermarriage. As far as the word ‘Mormon’ that is an adopted term by members (once used as a putdown by nonmembers- this is not the official name, and Mormon is one of several key figures in the Book of Mormon) since that is how nonmembers identify them….the connection members feel to the people of the Book of Mormon is that they are all members of the covenant.

    • Janet Crain says:

      With all due respect, this theory has been totally disproven by DNA research.

  4. the Hokulea, double hulled canoe from Hawaii has traveled to and from all of the polynesian islands PLUS alaska, california, and japan among other locations. and all through celestial navigation. and if they did this now, then many of the ancestors did as well.

  5. James says:

    From what I’ve read online and in published works, the Polynesian peoples are not that ancient and the culture we know today didn’t develop until the last two thousand years.

    I certainly think it’s a small possibility that seafaring Polynesians could have made it to South America in their sailing crafts, BUT that it would have happened much recently than the article seemed to suggest. Dr. Pena also mentions that the DNA is not old enough to suggest Polynesian admixture 12K-15K years ago.

    • There is a recent history channel documentary that suggests otherwise about the polynesians traveling capabilities. Search youtube and see. Also just a few generation ago polynesian navigators were well known for traveling distances as far as Samoa to Hawaii (more than twice the distance from Easter island to South America). These navigators were found in Samoa, Tonga, New Zealand, and other smaller island groups to name a few. In fact the islands of Samoa was dubbed the ‘Navigator Islands’ prior to the 20th century for their seafaring skills. Just listen to these peoples oral histories. They tell of how their ancestors used the stars to navigate the vast oceans. In fact there are still groups of them who still to this date have these skills, however, you have to search the very rural parts of Tonga, Samoa, and even smaller Polynesian island groups to find them. The more un-westernized the better.

  6. Emmett says:

    Hi, I was born and raised in the state of Michigan. My parents and theirs are from countries around Europe. I am a Catholic Christian and believe in the premise of Adam and Eve and their following families. We are all from them. I believe that Adam and Eve were the start of the group of humans known as Homo-Sapien-Sapien, the direct predecessors of the Homo-Sapien-Neanderthal. We were given a the Human Soul that also include an ability to have good recall, the ability to discern and plan for future events and better conscious control of our human body. We are all related regardless of where in the world our ancestors came from. I have found it very difficult to place a time frame on when Adam and Eve where alive. It seems to be from somewhere between 60,000 and 250,000 thousand years ago.

    • Person says:

      Interestingly enough, when the first Europeans came to the Americas (more specifically the Caribbean and South America), they referred to it as not just the New World, but as the Garden of Eden, because the people were walking around almost, if not completely, naked. They referred to it as the world before Adam and Eve sinned, the purity of it all before Adam and Eve went for the apple. Ironic how history occurred in their region of the world.

    • Puncho says:

      Emmett, your comment is correct.

  7. Talia says:

    I believe the comment about Mormon migration was referring to the migration of a man named Hagoth who lived during Book of Mormon times. I’ve read about this and the story in the book relates that he and his people landed in the isles of the sea and settled. Hagoth was a Native American according to the Book of Mormon history. This theory implies that Polynesians arrived to the isles by ships and originated from the Americas. I’m not Mormon myself but I found this fascinating as a Samoan since growing up I was taught several theories about where we came from. Interesting to hear yet another theory.

    • Kawe says:

      Except, it’s not really a theory. It’s a hypothesis of sorts, but made up entirely of thin air instead of from any actual evidence. It’s not worth entertaining on its own (though a real scientist is welcome to pitch the idea having been prompted by actual evidence and reasons).

      A theory is a supposition or a system of ideas intended to *explain something,* esp. one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained. I.e., a system of ideas that is able to explain a set of found pieces of evidence. Making up stuff and calling it “revelation” doesn’t count :)

      • Tom says:

        You seem like an intelligent person, but I think your relying on information in a documentary made by an anti-mormon skeptic, or at the very least relying on your own emotions or hatred towards a religion you disagree with.

        Before the Book of Mormon was introduced to my ancestors, there were stories/prophecies among them, about white men coming to teach us the true gospel.

        When the Mormon missionaries arrived we knew those prophecies had been fulfilled, it also confirmed our ancestors stories of us coming to NZ in ships rather than just canoes.

        So for a Book written so long ago, and to contain the answers my people were looking for, don’t you think it deserves a little more investigation?

        Rather than hate centred documentaries that conjure unimportant evidence to discredit a Book claiming to be a record of an ancient migration and testament of Christ in America.

        The Book even mentions a complex system of organised society, something until recent times was unheard of.

        I believe our people were heavily involved in trade between the North and South of America as well as Asian countries.

        Now that it is common knowledge it just helps to confirm the truthfulness of the Book.

        You could.. maybe do your own investigation by reading the actual Book with an open heart. Or at the very least, allow others to read it for themselves rather than trying to stop them from making the decision to learn for themselves.

        Wisdom and knowledge is made up of 3 things, things you know you know, things you know you don’t know, and things you don’t know you don’t know.

        For example, you probably know you know the sky is blue, but you might not know why it is blue, or why our eyes see it as blue making that something you know you don’t know. However the more you know you don’t know the more you will know you know, and the more you know you know, the wiser you will be.

        Furthermore, the part about our ancestors prophecy about white men coming to teach the true gospel to our people, that may have been something you originally didn’t know, becoming something you now know you don’t know, it’s now up to you as to whether you want it to become something you know you know.

  8. I am appalled.

    First, by the inherent bias of the scientific community. “Primitive” people are no less capable than modern men. In every culture and every era there have been daring individuals who felt compelled to explore beyond the horizon or climb a mountain to see what was on the other side. The assumption that ancient people could not navigate the oceans or cross the Andes is an insult to our ancestors.

    Second, by the positively frightening apparent lack of education in history evidenced in some of these comments. If this is an indication of the state of education in general, we are doomed. I can only hope that some of these people decide to do extensive reading on the history of civilization before they embarrass themselves by commenting again.

  9. Emmett says:

    Hi, I had already commented but – - Look up the Manix Basin in a search engine.. I found that interesting and it does create some thought. Does not give any answers though.

  10. Peter Kerr says:

    This is unreal, even when looking at facts such as DNA, the “white” anthropologists invent a ways to work around what is the obvious answer. When looking at a complex problem, the simple answer is usually the right one.

    Polynesians colonized the Pacific and islands which are 7 hours flight from each other. Those are documented facts. I would not be surprised that they have either seeded south and North America or at minimum significantly contributed to the genetic makaup of those continents before the “whites” arrived from Europe. I am white European and I can see that!

  11. eyekea says:

    Thank you this is very important which should be taught in schools as an elective.

  12. James says:

    It’s obvious that many coastal peoples of the Americas had seafaring technology. Couple that with favourable winds and ocean currents, you can drift to Polynesia. Drift.

    It doesn’t surprise me that there are genetic links. To speculate that migrations were one off, one direction, is ludicrous, and based upon limited evidence in itself.

    • Kalani says:

      Western concept….indigenous people were too stupid to figure this out by themselves, so they accidentally drifted to these new places.

      Fact, we have stories going back centuries of our traveling ancestors. In my own family, there was the famous story of Laka, son of Wahieloa, and Hema and Kaha’i, and many others. I won’t give too many names, especially if everyone will continue to think the way that they do, if not hijack our names and take credit for it in their own scholarly work.

      • nz finest says:

        Yep thats what they say even in New Zealand. But Maori migrated there over seveal generations. There was also a fleet of 7 canoes you cant tell me that was an accident.

  13. Dee says:

    So my family is mostly from Alabama and Mississippi the last five generations. I was told we were African, Irish European and Native American. DNA says I’m part Polynesian. Am I to think that is actually my native American? I and my family have NA features. Not sure how a Polynesian ended up with slaves in the South although my family claims my great grandfather had some Mexican heritage as well.

    • Puncho says:

      Hey Dee,

      I read most of these comments and everyone actually would rather
      commit suicide than to know that we all come from Africa. Now that I
      have these folks attention! Dee, your DNA is the same as mind. I was
      surprise to know that I was Asian and Native American…yes also I have
      Polynesian blood. You see DNA is not base on how one look in a physical
      appearance but in all facts it’s one blood. Dee, watch this documentary online
      Topdocumentaryfilms.com The human family tree!

    • Kalani says:

      Puncho….I don’t think people would actually commit suicide unless you know a lot of narrow minded, racist people from a small town, then I can understand that. Other than that, I’d say people can be just dramatic about it, but it’s no big deal.

      Dee….I’m pretty sure the DNA does’t say that you’re Polynesian, but depending on which DNA company you used, or which calculator tool you run your raw data through, you may have been classified as OCEANIA. I’m not sure if you’re referring to having been identified as a haplogroup that is more prevalent in Polynesia, but if so, you probably would need a full mtDNA sequencing done to verify that you actually have the Malagasy motif, versus the Polynesian motif.

  14. Hawaiki says:

    All maori came from maunganui – mt Everest
    Maungaroa – the Andes

  15. Ara says:

    Polynesians ancestors are Kambojians/Cambodians (Countryside/Oceanside) which later became Malays to Polynesians. Hences the Kamboja Flower, Sarong (traditional country dress), and the word Poi the Paste of Taro Plants (meaning to make as hot liquidify soft). Hence Kamboçya are genetically Tibeto-Burmese, Iranians, Indians priors to European & Mongol Türkiç Invasions.

  16. Ara says:

    Additionally, U can s we the different Asian, Indian, Tongas admixtures written on their faces, localized food later changed the bone structure to have more calcium jntheir diet, highly likely due to the consumption of fish who mains the diets from the coral and coral calcium in it’s property.

  17. Ara says:

    To learn more about the your Ancestry look to the Kambojian country/Oceanside cultures. You will find today the same active gears worned for centuries resembling the same polynesian style which can also be seen on stone reliefs from thousands of years ago. They were sea farers before the breakdown of the country and divide and invasion from Thai Chinesse who later assimilated into the culture. They went from today’s Malaysia, to the Bali and local islands, to Easten Island, to Madagascar, Hawaii too as Far as New Zealand, also mixing in with a Tonga tribe.

  18. Ara says:

    The Americas were long discovered by the Kambojians/Indians we had a map for it. We touch down long before Christopher Colombus or Ponce De Leon of Spain. The North was a crossing from Afghanis/Persian/Kambojs/Siberians through the Bering Straits. The south was by boat. Follow the Kamboj Flowers aka Plumeria, is the best thing to say. Which Polynesians and Kambojian wear for traditional celebrations. And it’s origins. I’ve studied this for 5 years, consecutively every week. My PASSION.

    P.S. Mormons beliefs does not hold. There isn’t any concrete evidence. It’s a perpetuated LIE, and people believe it blindly without seeking evidence of any kind. There are no archeological findings of war in south America that supports the book of Mormons. It’s a direct purpose to mislead from the original bible and a man who wishes glory and follower upon himself. Whom has originally studied Masonic teachings. Cross check your references before you believe anything. Jesus still stand as Lord and Savior. Follow up with people of NDE Near death experiences, they found no Joseph Smith guiding them to pearly gates. Hate me for being right. But don’t live in a lie. The Truth still remains the same.

  19. Ara says:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_Malaysia
    http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kamboja_(name)
    Which genetically also comes out from North Africa near Egypt. As we did traded. Old Cairo was known for it’s Kamboz/j/h people before it was called Cairo. You will still find towns name under the Kams People of the Kings of Kambu (Kambul/Kabul/Cambodia/Iran/Cambyses/Kambujiya/Kamels/Camels including the famous Kambu Horses traded to Arabs). We traded cinnamon and spices through Indian (Kamboja of Pallavas) & Sri Lanka (Old Kamboj territory)

    http://www.history.com/news/native-americans-hailed-from-siberian-highlands-dna-reveals

    A few references point to jump start from. The Human Family Tree.

    • OMG! Like shut up already! I’m so friggin tired of hearing you. It’s such an inflated ego driven and downright insulting when people keep claiming this and that through “DNA or extensive studies, scientific facts” – China makes claim, South East Asia etc.
      I don’t see any Navajo or Choctaw coming up on here and start spouting off.
      Why is that?
      Or an Aboriginal from Australia?
      I’m Polynesian. Maori (my Father) Tongan (my Mother). I’ve had ENOUGH! arguing and people claiming we “drifted” b/c we’re too dumb to navigate and map out vast ocean that is over 1,000 islands. I look at ancient America’s and I can see a connection. I have no scientific proof or DNA or chicken bones or whatever I keep reading conflicting information. I’m just so very tired and overwhelmed by too many “superior” cultures incessantly drilling in our heads that we came from China or South East Asia/Taiwan – whatever!!
      Shut up already!!! Science gets a lot of stuff wrong you know. Also if someone has a lot of money and power and they can create there own history. Billions of dollars go into “scientific research and studies and expeditions” and why? Because one race wants to claim they are superior or they were the “first” – I came here to try to find out about the Pa from One Tree Hill in Auckland and the connection with the Aztec/Mayan cities. I can see similarities visually speaking. I googled that and this came up. I have read every comment and it’s a lot like youtube comments, people arguing and carrying on about science like science can explain everything.
      Are you for real? EVERYTHING??
      The human soul, the spirit can be explained?
      I have a lot of respect for Ancient cultures and all I wanted to know was if there was a connection.

  20. savant says:

    Everybody is am amateur paleontologist, too funny. Me, I’ll stick to science.

  21. John Wasko says:

    This is how ancient Polynesian voyagers populated South America and why.

    http://amsamoa-busycorner.blogspot.com/2013/10/polynesian-nazca-lines-in-south-america.html

    From Pago Pago,
    John Wasko

  22. Randall says:

    I have been contacted by a researcher who has seen my MtDNA results and my matches. I am now assisting with the study by providing genealogical information and another DNA sample.
    “This combination of mutations is called the Polynesian motif, because it was originally discovered in Polynesians, were it attains frecuencies of 90% or more. Later it was also observed in South East Asia (where from the Polynesians derive) and, more important, in Madagascar, an island populated by both East Africans and South East Asians.

    The presence of the Polynesian motif in the Americas is frequent in people with Pacific Islands/Polynesian roots, as well as in people of South East Asian descent (e.g. Philippinnes, Indonesians, etc) and in Malagasy. It may also be found in African Americans and Afro-Caribbeans, in what I think may be the proof of Malagasy ancestry, via voluntary or forced migration as slaves.”

  23. Rika says:

    Our ancestors sailed the sea’s like how white men drove their cars on roads, it’s nothing new,they have many moon’s of experience, they had their own GPS – stars

  24. I know further DNA research will prove that not all North American tribes were completely East Asian in origin. I have some Chippewa and Potawatomi ancestors, but when I had my DNA checked for ethnicity, Polynesian, and Melanesian showed up instead of the normal” East Asian/ American Indian markers” I know for a fact I am Chippewa and Potawatomi. many tribes were completely wiped out. A lot of DNA is lost or obscured. The truth is their is more to American DNA than just East Asian. Their Polynesian and Melanesian brothers were right their beside them. They were and still are the warriors, and defenders of America. the first to die

  25. Aukai says:

    What about the possibility that all polynesians traveled on a very frequent basis? if so, do u all really think they would travel only in one direction? or not know exactly where they were and where they were headed? no one has looked at the traits of the people rather than what modern western technology can try and convince us of, like many of you have stated, there is at least 2000 years of oral history of your travels to our cousins in the pacific, as a very ambitious people they could never fully quench the thirst for adventure to other islands, i believe that to one of many reasons why we still have songs and dances speaking of our journeys to our cousins and also the arrival of our cousins to our shores, just food for thought, mahalo,Keakua pu me ‘oukou apau.

  26. TeePee says:

    I believe our people of the pacific did come from the east being South America, but I also believe there were others that came from the west such as Madagascar and some from Asia. If you compare the people of Fiji to the people of the Cook Islands, Tonga etc you can clearly see the difference in features there. However you can see similarities with Polynesia and South America with the art our ancestors have passed down such as dance (Cook Island dance and dress compared to Brazilian dance – samba ). There is also art such as Lapita pottery discovered by archaeologists in polynesia as well as polynesian tatau and carvings which is also similar to the culture of ancient South America. But as mentioned earlier that doesn’t mean that others may have come from the west such as taiwan and madagascar in numbers and populated areas also. Of course Polynesian DNA would have some type of evidence linking people to asia as I believe mixed breeding would have happened not to mention the chinese were introduced to Samoa and other neighboring pacific islands around the 1870′s.

    But anyway…..blah blah I’m just sharing my thoughts and studies.

    Alofa, everybody.

    • Randall says:

      It turns out there were Polynesians that inhabited Madagascar possibly via shipwreck. This is why the Polynesian DNA is present in so called Blacks in America today. The Malagasy Slave Trade was involved in the Atlantic Slave Trade also. I’m finding this out now by doing research and working with a private researcher from Argentina. slaves were brought to South America first then North America.

  27. xero says:

    Current evidence offers (some)support for Polynesians visiting South America, but not the other way around. If you don’t have genuine interest in the scientific work being done you should ignore it and stick to your zeal to fuel your polemic.

  28. nz finest says:

    Im a New Zealand Maori. I have always been interested in the origins of our people past the boundries of Polynesia. Our closest liguistic relatives are the Cook Islanders and Tahitians. My grandfather used to grow Kumara (sweet potato) and a blue skinned yellow fleshed potatoe he called ‘peru peru’ there isis no translation into english for the word with only one exception the name of a country on the other side of the pacific. I wonder.
    There is evidence to support that Polynesians came from Asia via Taiwan and Papua New Guinea. In my humble opinion I think polynesians have traces of South American DNA because SOME of our distant forbearers came from there. I think theyve got it wrong I cant see a seafearing people climbing the
    Andes, but I can see people from the South American continent leaving in search of a new life. I think the remains they found are of those who stayed behind. We are the tail end of a human odessey that started eons ago. When they can connect all the dots and tell me how kumara and peru got to New Zealand Id be happy.

    • This is exactly what I am wondering about too. I was in Hawai’i for 3 months and I saw this statue of an ancient warrior who had this helmet and cape on. In 2006 I was in Cancun in Mexico watching a beautiful floor show, showing through dance and performance their ancient history. They wore the same kind of helmets and capes, seems like their royalty wore this kind of dress. In Hawai’i I saw the same thing is what I’m saying.
      I’d love to unravel the mystery of Ancient Polynesian’s.

  29. EKMcMahon says:

    Are we forgetting about the ancient Chinese who drew maps of their worldly voyages and they did get to what is now the Americas many thousand od years ago. We can be sure they were not Jewish or Christians.

  30. Damaro says:

    Old Fijian tale says people of eastern oceania came from armenia through asia, crossed northern pacific into Americas and finally travelled east to west into oceania through Hawaii, Tahiti, Havaiki. Progenitor was a man who travelled from same region through middle-east, North-east Africa, indonesia, Western Pacific into Fiji. Whether tale is true or not one cannot tell. Whether expedition broke off from north America or travelled full length of continent is not mentioned. Either way, fact that trace amounts of Polynesian genome is found in Americas is truly interesting.

  31. Puncho says:

    Greeting folks, Check this video out and please
    send me your comments. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XPjcAKlhvoY
    Dr. Runoko Rashidi
    “The original Man”
    I like to know what you think, because many pages of our history has been
    missing.

  32. EK McMahon says:

    s Puncho it is, I watched it a a week or two or go and it put me to thinking and I checked it and a few other sites around on the Web checking out the various sites for DNA testing to see if I could find out what was the “day 1″ of the start of my DNA history. I know that there is Irish from my father and Finnish from my mother and my Sis who started to do a family tree found German, English – lets just say a lot of European mixed in our family’s past. So I scrapped up a few bucks and decided to do the DNA testing via National Geographic via their Genographic testing. I just sent in my test last Friday (03- 21) and just checked before starting this comment and it is yet to be received and started. It can take 8 or so weeks for results. The Bible says that we started off in the Garden of Eden which according to some, is presently located at the bottom of the Persian Gulf. These articles tell us we started some where in Northeastern Africa ?? Whatever, they are geographically close by to one another.

  33. Adriene says:

    I am African American, my family is from Virginia, Eastern Tennessee, North & South Carolina, as far as I know all of my family came through the slave trade, but my mom and I both have Oceanian markers. My maternal line is a mixture of African American, European, and Native American. This marker is through the Barnett or Hicks family in Eastern Tennessee.

  34. Blacks fled africa and fled to america, who first found it, then during the the ghengis khan reign, many mongolians fled asia to america, two waves met in america, the mongolians and the blacks which are called melanesians today, both groups interacted, and during the aztec wars and slavery many of the descendants fled to the islands, two pathways, one group fled to south east asia and the 2nd movement to rapa nui aka easter island then both groups found its way to the south pacific, thats why you have booth wool and striaght hairs in the island, we are a mixture of black and mongolian, thats our history – its all in the bible through 2nd Esdras 13:40 – we fled the wars in that part too. Epapa – tells a story we came from africa to the islands, if we got to the islands, how the hell we miss america.. we didn’t… we fled there too. Deut 33 says we will be dwelling in the SOUTH AND WEST of the SEAS.. We are part of the 12 Tribes who are Lost …

    • Samoan says:

      Wahaahla, you’re wrong sorry, no scientific what so ever to back those claims. Although I do believe in the bible but interpret it differently. Epapa, is right in that we did come from Africa (all man did) and yes South East Asia, but you hit the islands first before you get to America?? so we didn’t miss it at all, we got there eventually.

      I am disappointed that Pena made this comment, that Polynesians could not make the journey from the Pacific to South America. Seems like he has been listening to the “old School” for too long. We did, scientists have proven and discovered that Polynesians did travel from the Pacific and to South America, then back to the Pacific including Cook Islands, and Aotearoa (New Zealand) where the Kumara was introduced. There were Polynesian skulls, and bone fish hooks that are not native to South America found there, where did they originate from? Polynesia. Please accept “old school” and sadly some new school, that Pacific Islanders made it to the Americas long before Columbus. If you think about it, if the Ocean had been our way of life for over a thousand years, travelling to different islands was easily done, currents, trade winds, what kind of food to take on long journeys became learned skill. And soon, we weren’t just hopping islands, why is it so hard to believe that we made it to another continent. There was more ocean that surrounded us than land. So it became a way of life to learn about the ocean. You think because we don’t belong to the same culture, dress different talk different that we could not possibly do these great things but we did. SAMOAN POLYNESIAN WAYFINDER

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